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The Best Thinkers

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Medicine was acheived during the Scientific revolution

The Enlightenment was especially influenced by the ideas of two 17th Englishmen, Isaac Newton and John Locke. To Newton, the physical world and everything in it was like a giant machine. If Newton could discover the natural laws that governed the physical world, then by using his methods, the intellectuals of the Enlightenment thought they could discover the natural laws that governed human society.

Most of the leaders of the Enlightenment were French, but even the French would have acknowledged that the English had provided the philosophical inspiration for the Enlightenment. It was definitely these French philosophes, however, who affected intellectuals elsewhere and created a movement that influenced the entire Western world. The Enlightenment was a truly international movement.

Although many philosophes attacked the Christian churches, most Europeans in the 18th century were still Christians. That made people like the church and attended more often. Many people also sought a deeper personal devotion to God.

Heliocentric Model
Geocentric Model (Right)

Heliocentric: This was a theory based that the sun was the center of the universe instead of the earth.
Geocentric:This was also known as the Ptolemaic system. It said that the earth was the center of the universe.
Universal law of gravitation: It explains why the planetary bodies do not go off in straight lines but instead continue in elliptical orbits about the sun.
Scientific Method: This is a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence and was crucial to the evolution of science in the modern world.
Inductive reasoning:This was when scientists used to learn about nature. For them to use particular to the general.
Rationalism: This system of thought is based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge.
Social Contract: This is when an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.
Salon: These were the elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class's great urban houses.
Rococo: This was a new artistic style that emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action. Sometimes was colored in gold.
Enlightned absolutism: This was when the rulers tried to govern by Enlightment principles while maintaining their royal powers.
The Telescope was created during this time
Isaac Newton discovered gravity
Human Anatomy was developed during these times


Galileo Galilei: He taught mathematics. He was the very first European to make regular observations of the heavens using a telescope instead of the naked eye. With it, he discovered mountains on the Moon, four moons revolving around Jupiter, and sunspots.

Isaac Newton: He became a professor of math at the university and wrote his major work, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. He showed that one universal law, mathematically proved, could explain all motion in the universe.
John Locke: His theory of knowledge also greatly affected 18th century intellectuals. He thought if environments were changed and people were exposed to the right influences, then people could be changed and a new society created.
Bach: He spent his entire life in Germany. He was a reowned organist as well as a composer. He was a music director at the Church of Saint Thomas in Leipzig.
Handel: German who spent much of his career in England. He is probably best known for his religious music. Handel's Messiah has been called a rare work that appeals to everyone.
Mozart: He was a legit child prodigy. His failure to get a regular patron to support him financially made his life miserable. Despite of this he wrote music passionately.
Haydn: He spent most of his adult life as musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes
Frederick The Great: He was one of the best educated and most cultured monarchs in the 18th century. He was a dedicated ruler. He enlarged the Prussian army also and he kept a strict watch over the bureaucracy.
Maria Theresa: She refused to accept the loss of Silesia. She rebuilt her army while working diplomatically to separate Prussia from its chief ally, which is France.
Robert Walpole: He served as head of cabinet, which was later called the prime minister, from 1721 to 1742 and pursued a peaceful foreign policy.
Nicholas Copernicus

Galileo Galilei
Map of the Scientific Revolution