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Eliza Strouse, Lindsay Nerby3000 B.C.-50 B.C."From our childood we have been led to regard this place as the cradle of the human race" -Loftus


A big thing that the Mesopotamian people were known fro was their inventions. They invented many tools and devices that made daily life easier and more productive. One invention everyone has heard of and maybe uses today still was the wagon wheel. The Mesopotamians i
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Ziggurat
nvented the wheel to make transportation easier and faster for people. One other thing that really effected the people is the sundial to help them keep time. They also invented the potter's wheel to shape containers and the arch used in construction. The Sumerians were the first to make bronze out of copper and tin, creating crafted metalwork. They were so smart to invent these objects. They studied mathematics. In math they advised a number system based on 60. Geometry was used to measure the fields and buildings.

The religion of the Sumerians was very important. It all started when the city had very dangerous climates and conditions. Such as ferocious floods, heavy downpours, scorching winds, and oppressive humidity. The only conclusion the Sumerians could come up with was that the conditions were controled by supernatural forces. Because of these disasters, the Sumerians felt helpless. This lead to the religion of polytheistics. Which is the belief in many gods. The Mesopotamians identified almost three thousand gods and goddesses.

In 2340 B.C. the Akkadians took over the Sumerian cities. This was the first empire in the world. The Akkadian empire fell because of the attacks from the hill peoples near by. It ended in 2100 B.C. This cause the system of warring city-states to return. A new empire followed the Akkadian empire in 1792 B.C. that controlled mush of Mesopotamia, that came from Babylon. This is where Hammurabi came into power. With his power, he created the Meopotamian kingdom. This kingdom couldn't last forever, so when Hammurabi died in 1750 B.C., the weak kings could not keep the kingdom going. And it fell to invaders.


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Cyrus


Terms:
Mesopotamia: Land (valley) between two rivers know as the Tirgis and Euphrates River spoken by the Ancient Greeks. known as land "between the rivers."
Ziggurat: temple built atop a massive stepped tower. They served as the the center of the city physically, economically, and even politically.
Theocracy: goverment by divine authority. Eventually, however, ruling power passed into the hands of worldly fi
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Map of Mesopotamia
gures, of kings. Sumerians thought that gods ruled the cities, making the state a theocracy.

Cuneiform: System of writing: wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets, which were then sat into the sun light to dry out.
Polythesistic: Mesopotamian Religion, meaning the belief in many gods. With this religion, humans were created to do the manual work the gods were unwilling to do.
Historical People:
Sargon: Leader of Akkadians that over ran Sumerian city-states. Set up first empire. He lost his empire in 2100 B.C. to neighbors
Hammurabi: Created collection of laws called Code Of Hammurabi. He was also the King of the Mesopotamian kingdom and had control over Sumer and Akkad.
Artaxerxes II: ruled in the fourth century B.C. and had 115 sons. They all faught for power over the throne. His half brother murdered him in his bed.
Cyrus: Persian King that created a powerful state the stretched from Asia Minor to Western India. He ruled from 559 to 530 B.C. He also carptured Babylon in 539 B.C.
Darius: A persian king that added a new persian province that went to the Indus River. He ruled from 521 to 486 B.C. and added a new Persian province.



View Akkadian Empire and over 3,000,000 other topics on Qwiki.




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sargon

Links:
religion: Religions in Mesopotamia.
gods: Gods in Mesopotamia.
Facts: Fast facts bout Mesopotamia.
Geography: Geogrpahy of Mesopotamia.
British Museum: All information you need ot know about Mesopotamia.








Timel
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Writing by Mesopotamians
ine

3000 B.C.: The Summerian people established a number of independent cities in Mesopotamia. They also created cuneiform.
2700 B.C.: The royal standard of Ur was created. This depicts different Sumerian scenes.
2500 B.C.: The new school was in operation that boys from wealthy families went to become scribes. They had long days and harsh disipline.
2340 B.C.: The Akkadians set up the first empire in the world, leadered by Sargon.
2100 B.C.: The Akaadian Empire falls and brings back the system of warring city-states.
1792 B.C.: This is when Hammurabi comes to power.
1750 B.C.: Hammurabi dies and looses his power and his Kingdom.
1849: Loftus found the remains of the city of Uruk.