Europe in the Middle Ages

Eliza Strouse and Lindsay Nerby
The Black Death was the worst natural disaster in European history,also known as the Black Plague. It was spread by rats infected with the plague. Italian merchants brought the plague over from Caffa to the Island of Sicily in October 1347. In 1348 and 1349, the plague spr
Cathedral in Paris
ead to France, the lower countries and Germany. In 1349 it damaged England and went to northern Europe and Scandinavia. Then in 1351, Eastern Europe and Russia were affected. 38 million people died of it and there was only 75 million people. Because of the Black Death, places in these areas have really been affected, for example in some places villages have disappeared.

The Great Schism of the Church split Europe for almost 40 years. It was caused when French cardinals elected a second pope who lived in Avigon. France and its allies supported the pope in Avigon. England and its allies supported the pope in Rome. This event made peoples faith in the pope and the Church decline, damaging the churches power. It lasted from 1378 to 1417. Boh popes denounced that the other is a Antichrist. The Schism ended in 1417 when a church council met in Switzerland and ended it. Both popes were made to quit. They then elected a new pope.

Even though the Black Death was very bad, there were still problems following.The Hundred Years' War was the most violent struggle during the late middle ages. It was started when King Philip VI of France took control of Gascony, a English territory, King Edward III of England declared war on Philip. In this war knights tried to show their fighting ability, but peasant foot soliders won the important battles. In Crecy, the first major battle of the war the English archers slaughtered the French. The larger French army didn't have specific rules in war. They just attacked the English in a disorderly fashion. This was a stunning win for the English. The other battle was the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. 1,500 french nobles died on the battlefield. The English won again.


Money economy: economic system based on money rather than barter that devoleped by the twelfth century
Wergild: A fine a wrongdoer paid to the family that he injured or killed. Also means "money for a man".
Lay investiture: where people that were not part of the church chose church officials and gave them their symbol of the office.
Theology: study of religion and God that was the most highly regarded subject of the medieval university. Can take over 10 years to study.
Great Schism: lasted from 1378 to 1417 that divided Europe. Caused when French cardinals elected a second pope. Once it was resolved, both popes were made to quit.
Henry IV

Pope Gregory VII: He was elected in 1073. He decided to fight the practice of lay investiture. He bleieves that God picked him.
Pope Innocent III: under his rule church reached height of its power. He also used the interdict to achieve political power. He started to rule in 1198.
Henry IV: King of Germany who got into a conflict with Pope Gregory VII about his beliefs. They believed in different vassals.
Saint Francis of Assisi: founded the Franciscans, and abandoned all his money and power to preach. He was born into a rich family.
Pope Urban VI: second pope that was elected during the Great Schism. He was a Frenchman and because he stayed in Rome, he caused the Great Schism.

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1098: This was when the Cistercian order was formed and women became more into spiritual movem

1000-1300: The population almost doubled from 83 million to 74 million people.
1073: Pope gregory VII was elected and he was convinced that God chose him to reform the church.
1122: The "Song of Roland" was wriiten in French. This was one of the earliest finest example of vernacular literature.
1122: This was when the German king and a new pope reached an agreement about the Investiture Controversy.
1150: Architects began to build buildings with the new style of Gothic style.
1200: The largest city in England had more then 40,000 people. Most trading cities have about 5 thousand people in their city.
1374: The Black death began to spread in the Island Cicily by black rats infested with fleas.
1469: This was when Ferdinand and Isabelle got marrie which was a major step towards unifying the Spain.
1500: By this time there were 80 universities in Europe.