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1550-1715By Lindsay, Justin, and Aaron

When people think of Crisis and Absolutism, they think of Queen Elizabeth. She was one of the most influencial people in history. Elizabeth became the Queen in 1558. In the beginning she didn't rule over a whole lot of people. During her reign the small island kingdom became the leader of the Protestant nations in Europe. It also laid the foundations for a world empire. Something else that she did was that she solved religious problems. She repealed the laws favoring Catholics. This act named Elizabeth “the only supreme governor” of both church and state. This made the church Protestant, but it followed a moderate Protestantism that kept most people satisfied.
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Crisis and Absolutism Map

The Thirty Years' War was a very important event. It took place after the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. The Thirty Years' War was a dipute over religion in Germany. The calvanists weren't reconized by the peace settlement. As they spread to many parts of Europe, it lead to an outbreak called the “last of the reigious wars”. The war began in 1618. it took place in the lands of the Holy Roman Empire. At first it was hard for the Catholics that rebelled against Hapsburg. Then later France, Denmark, Sweden, and Spain entered the war. Then there was a struggle between France and Spain for European leadership. This made it so that Germany would not be united for another two hundred years.

In England there were a lot of culture and literature. It all really started in 1580. Someone who was very influencial at this time was Shakespeare. He was a famous poet and had his own theater that is called the Globe Theater. He was well known that Queen Elizabeth supported him. Baroqe was also very important at this time. This was when baroque artists tried to bring together the classical ideals of renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the sixteenth-century religious revival.

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Queen Elizabeth I

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Fredrick II

Terms:

Huguenots: They were French Protestants influenced by John Calvin. They made up 7% of the French population.
Armada: this was a fleet of war ships that was sent to invade England
Witchcraft: This was magic that has been part of a traditional village culture for centuries.
Divine right of the kings: This was that kings receive their power from God and are reasonable only to God.
Puritans: They were Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas.
Commonwealth: This was another name for the England Republic after it was abolished by Parliament.
Czar: This was the Russian word for Caesar. Also known as Ivan IV
Boyars: the Russian nobility that was crushed by Ivan IV
Baroque: this was a movement that began in Italy and eventually spread to the rest of Europe and even Latin America.
Natural rights: these were rights that people were born with which included rights to life, liberty, and property.

People:

Francis Drake- He was an English Admiral that destroyed the Spanish Armada.
Oliver Cromwell: He was an English military leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth, and served as Lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
King George III: He was in power from from 1760 to 1820. During his reign, the American Revolution occured.
James I- He believed in the divine right of kings, which is that the kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.
Charles I- He was the son of James I. He also believed in the divine right of kings. He accepted the Parliament's petition in 1628, but later he realized that it put limits on the king's power.
James II- He became king in 1685. He was an open and devout Catholic, making religion once more a cause of conflict between king and Parliament.
Cardinal Richelieu: strenghened the power of the monarchy. He took away the Huguenots right of political and military while preserving their religious rights. He set up spies to uncover plots by conspiracies and executed the conspirators.
Louis XIV- He took over supreme power when Mazarin died in 1661. After his death, at the age of 23, stated his desire to be a real king and the sole ruler of France.
Peter the Great- He became czar in 1689. He was an absolutist monarch who claimed the divine right to rule. Under Peter, Russia became a great military power.
Thomas Hobbes: He was alarmed by the revolutionary upheavals in England. He had claimed that before society was organized, human life was quote "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."

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King Louis XIV
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Book about Crisis and Absolutism



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Contraption used to cut heads

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Peter the Great



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Peter the Great



Timeline:
1558:Elizabeth Tudor ascended the throne. At this time England had fewer than four million people.
1560: This was when Calvinism and Catholicism bcame very big religons. They tried to eliminate each other's power.
1562: This was when the French Wars of Religion began.
1571: The Battle of Lepanto. The Spain had a victory over the Turkish.
1589: Henry of Navarre succeeded to the throne as Henry IV and converted to Catholicism.
1598: The Edict of Nantes was issued by the king to solve religion problems.
1599: The Globe Theater was built. This held a lot of Shakespear's plays in London.
1601: This was when Queen Elizabeth made a speech to parliament which is known now as the Golden Speech.
1642: The Civil war broke out in England between the supporters of the king and the parliamentary forces.
1715: Lousis XIV died and left France with great debts and surrounded by enemies.

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Palace of Versailles
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Gustavus Adolphus