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1945-1989

By: Justin Kaiser Aaron Fraase Lindsay Nerby



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Cold War Map
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The U.S. and Soviet Union Flag

"An iron curtain has descended across the continent." Winston Churchill in March 1946

In 1949 NATO was formed. It consisted of countries forming and aliance. All powers agreed to provide help if one of them was attacked. Them members were Belgium, Luxembourge, France, Netherlands, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, Canada, and the U.S.A. A few years after Western Germany, Turkey and Greece joined NATO. This organization was originally formed because of the development of nuclear arms. In 1955, another alliance was formed known as The Warsaw Pact as well as many others after the U.S.A. Became part of the Korean War. Other organizations were CEATO, South-east Asia Treaty Organization, and CENTO, Central Treaty Organization. These were to try to contain the Soviet power.

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The Leaders during the Cold War

In August 1961 the Berlin wall began to be built. The new leader of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev, felt that he needed to stop the flow of refugies from East Germany to West Berlin. Eventually it became a massive barrier covered with barbed-wire, flood lights, machine gun towers, mine fields, and vicious dog patrols. The wall became a symbol of the division between the two super powers. The new leader did not want the poverty strikened to invade the prosperity of West Berlin.

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Soviet Union propoganda
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American Propoganda


Women played a large role during this time. During WWII, women entered the work force to fill jobs while male soldiers were at war. After WWI many governments thanked women by giving them the right to vote. The U.S.A. Granted voting rights to women in 1920. By late 1960's, women began to assert their rights with the womens liberation movement.One of the main people influenced this movement was Simone De Beauvoir. She wrote a book called “The Second Sex”. She argued that women had been put into a different class than men and received a second class status.


People:
John F Kennedy: youngest president in the U.S.A. Hisstory, elected in 1960.
Simone De Beauvoir: influenced the womens liberation movement
Martin Luther King Jr.: the leader of the racial equality movement, his famous quote is -”I Have A Dream...”
Charles De Gaulle: French president from 1890 to 1970.
Nikita Hhrushchev: Soviet leader frfom 1894 to 1971
Alexander Solzhenitsen: he wrote the publication one day in the life of Ivan Denisovich which was one of the prison camps.
Josip Borz: also known as Tito the leader of the Communist Resistant Movement.
Imre Nage: he was an Hungarin leader in 1956
Alexander Dubchek: was the first secretary in the communist party in 1968.
Konrad Adenauer: was the chancellor and leader of the Christian Democratic Union from 1949 to 1963.

Terms

Cold War- period of international tension between the super powers of the U.S.A. and USSR.
Truman Doctrine- created on March 14, 1947, the US would provide military and economic aid to countries threatened by communism
Marshall Plan- The U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them recover and rebuild after WWII.
Policy of containment- U.S. policy of keeping communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggression and takeover of other non-communist countries
Arms Race- The race between the USA and USSR to upgrade and outdo each other with completion in building weapons, the USSR exploded their first Atomic Bomb in 1949.
Mutual Deterrence- the ability of USA and USSR to destroy each other and acted as method to avoid war and possible to end life on earth.
De-Stalinization- the process of removal of harsh policies of Stalin's government in soviet Russia, the leader Khrushchev wanted to get rid of.
Domino Theory- South Vietnam falls to communism and other nations of far East Asia other nations would fall into it like domino's
Detente- it is French for relaxation, the improvement in U.S. president and the Soviet leader between 1972 and 1979
Iron Curtain- this was the nickname used to refer to communist nations of Europe, during the Cold War.

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U.S. soldiers at Korea

Timeline:

1949: September-Soviets explode first atomic bomb
1950: June- Korean War begins
1953:July- Korean War ends
1957: October 4-Sputnik launched into orbit
1959: September-Khrushchev visits US and was denied access into Disneyland
1960: Soviet Union reveals that U.S. spy plane the U-2 was shot down by Soviet territory
1960: John F.Kennedy elected President
1961: August 17th, the construction of the Berlin Wall begins
1963: Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas
1975: April, North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam
1989: November the Berlin Wall falls
1990: October 3rd, Germany reunited
1991: April, the Warsaw Pact ends
1991: August marks the end of Soviet Union and becomes simply known as Russia, and officially ends the Cold War

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Cartoon of Soviet and U.S. tensions
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The diameter of the Hydrogen bomb
competition was high between U.S. hockey and Soviets
competition was high between U.S. hockey and Soviets

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USSR tested their first atomic bomb